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This two-part essay has attempted to demonstrate a couple of lessons. First, and contrary a general misunderstanding fostered by the United States government and sanctioned, until recently, by this country’s historians, the Cold War did not originate in certain Soviet actions in Eastern Europe in the concluding months of the Second World War. The Cold War began in 1917, and it varied in intensity from that date until 1945 when the United States ceased being a mere partner in the anti-Soviet coalition and assumed the position of "leader of the free world."

The whole issue of Eastern Europe and the disposition of Czechoslovakia, Poland, Hungary, Rumania and Bulgaria -- the latter three having been axis allies of Germany -- requires another lengthy essay. The crimes and injustices -- the real as well as the imagined ones -- committed by the Soviet government in the pursuit of certain of its goals, strategic, economic, and ideological are only explicable when compared to those of her Cold War rival's in Greece, Turkey, the Middle East, India, Africa, Central and South America, and, of course, Southeast Asia.

All of which leads me to the second lesson: An ancient Viking poem, "The Sayings of the High One" (that is Odin), reminds its listeners, "No man is so good as to free from all evil, nor so bad as to be worth nothing." Of course, the Vikings were pagans; and we are a Christian people -- are we not? -- LC Jorgensen


(Please note that these bibliographies were compiled in 1971. A lot of history and a lot of books have happened since then. Still, most of these have become classics in the field, and should not be overlooked. LCJ 1997)

A. United States Intervention in the Russian Revolution

Bunyan, J. Intervention, Civil War, and Communism in Russia. Baltimore, John Hopkins Press, 1936.

Carr, E. H. The Bolshevik Revolution 1917-1923. New York, Macmillan, 1951-52. 2 volumes.

Chamberlin, W. H. Russian Revolution. New York, Macmillan, 1935. 2 volumes.

Fleming, D. F. The Cold War and Its Origins, 1917-1960. Doubleday & Co. 1961.

This is still the most definitive work available in English. Volume I covers the "Cold War" from 1917 to 1945, with chapter two providing a brief summary of the Russian civil war and Allied intervention; Volume II deals with the years from the end of the Second World War to 1960. )

Graves, William S. America’s Siberian Adventure. New York, 1941. General William S. Graves was the military commander of the United States military expedition to Siberia.

Horowitz, David (ed.). Containment and Revolution. Beacon Press. 1967.

(Within this very superior collection of seven researched essays by various scholars is "American Intervention in Russia: 1917-1920,'' by Prof. William A. Williams. A reading of this detailed and closely documented essay ought to dispel any lingering doubts as to the motivation of those men in 1917 who decided upon intervening in the Russian civil war; and since these men included the then President and his Secretary of State, this essay is also a most significant contribution to the "origins of the cold war.")

Kennan, G. F. The Decision to Intervene. Princeton Univ. Press. 1958. & Russia and the West under Lenin and Stalin. Little, Brown & Co. 1961

These two works by the American establishment's unofficial "official authority" on the origin and nature of the "cold war" must be read by anyone desiring to understand how American intellectuals in general and most American historians in particular manage to hold onto their mis-informed and dangerous notions concerning the origin and nature of Soviet-American relations since 1917. Chapters 5 through 8 of Russia and the West under Lenin and Stalin provide an adequate description of the traditional and orthodox explanation of American and Allied intervention in the Russian civil war by America's most orthodox traditionalist.

Levin, Jr., N. Gordon. "Wilson and Siberia". A paper originally presented at the joint Conference on Peace Research in History with the Organization of American Historians, Chicago, April 28, 1967. President Wilson's decision to send American soldiers into Siberia in 1918 is analyzed in this paper in the context of Wilson's attempt to impose on the far east a "Wilsonian system of rational

international- capitalist cooperation amongst the major powers interested in commercial expansion in the Far East." That this "system" necessitated the establishment of an anti-Bolshevik military force in the area, and that this necessity was consciously acknowledged by President Wilson, is readily apparent and superbly documented.

Schuman, F. L. Soviet Politics at Home and Abroad. New York, Knopf, 1946.

Stewart, George. The White Armies of Russia. New York, Macmillan, 1933. Based upon Russian language sources, Stewart vividly describes the reign of terror (White Terror) that accompanied the White Armies wherever they went.

Strakhovsky, L. I. The Origins of American Intervention in North Russia, 1918. Princeton University Press, 1937. Intervention in Archangel. Princeton Univ. Press, 1944.

Ullman, Richard H. Intervention and the War. Princeton Univ. Press, 1961. While this specialized study of the British intervention suffers from most of the faults of the Kennan works, it is at least a documented study. It is also an honest endeavor by a serious -- if near-sighted scholar.

Vernadsky, George. A History of Russia. Yale University Press, 1966. The late Prof. Vernadsky authored more than a dozen monographs on ancient, medieval, and modern Russia. His interest and his scholarship transcended the needs of "cold war warriorship"; therefore, his one-volume survey, A History of Russia, is free of the anti-Russian and anti-Communist bias found in most standard one-volume texts. The Russian civil war and allied intervention is discussed in pages 302-320.)

Williams, W. A. Russian-American Relations, 178l-1947. Rinehart & Co., 1952. This is the first published book by Prof. Williams, who, in my opinion, is the most significant and the most profound living American historian, though I would not offer this particular work as proof of my contention.)

The Tragedy of American Diplomacy. World, 1959. (Prof. Williams' extensive survey of U.S. foreign policy and its increasingly obvious and tragic implications.) "American Intervention in Russia: 1917-1920." Containment and Revolution. David Horowitz (ed.). Beacon Press, 1967. pp.26-75. (See comments above, under Horowitz.

B. Some Background to the Russian Revolution

Brandes, Georges. Impressions of Russia: Life and Letters in Late Nineteenth Century Russia Viewed by a Distinguished Contemporary. Translated from the Danish by Samuel Eastman. New York: Thomas Crowell Co. 1966.

Originally published in Denmark in 1887, Impressions of Russia is in a way a two-part book. The author, a literary critic and historian, was concerned with capturing (to the extent that it was possible from his visit and observations) both the feeling or the spirit of the Russia of the 1880’s as well as the sense, the perspective, and the art of the writers of the period: Pushkin, Gogol, Herzen, Chernyshevski, Turgenev, Dostoyevsky, and Tolstoy - to mention but the major ones. On the one hand, this is a highly valuable social history. Brandes was an exceptionally sympathetic yet objective observer of urban and urbane 19th century Russia. In addition, he himself was a kind of super-sophisticate, catholic and cosmopolitan in his interests and perspective, radical in his political sympathies, and exceedingly bright and lucid in his writing. The second half of Impressions of Russia is an equally interesting and readable analysis of Russian literature, an analysis that insists that literature (indeed, all art) is created by the land that gives it birth.

Grousset, Rene. The Empire of the Steppes: A History of Central Asia. Translated from the French by Naomi Walford. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 1970

First published in 1939, this monumental and almost encyclopedic history of the nomads of the Asian and Russian steppes is probably the only work of its kind. Not only has Rene Grousset chronicled the movements of the various steppe nomads, but he has attempted to explain their effects upon the "civilized" and established peoples - the sedentary man - upon whom they acted. Rich in detail, tremendous in scope, considerate of the reader in format and organization, the Empire of the Steppes is a must for anyone in the Steppes themselves, Central Asia in general, or Russia, China, and India in particular.

Haimson, Leopold H. The Russian Marxists and the Origins of Bolshevism. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard Univ. Press, 1955.

Very, very profound, very original, and short.

Miliukov, Paul. Russia and Its Crisis: Russia before the Revolution of 1905. New York: Collier Books, 1962

Completed in 1905, this book by one of Russia’s foremost historians and that country’s most prominent liberal leader, 1905-1917, was the result of a series of lectures that Professor Miliukov gave at the University of Chicago in 1903.

Pares, Bernard. The Fall of the Russian Monarchy. New York: Vintage Books, 1961

Concerning Tsarist Russia during the reign of Nicholas II, and written by a British specialist of considerable authority (first published in 1939), it is herein argued that the destruction of the Russian Monarchy was in large measure due to the actions of the Tsar, the Tsarina, and Rasputin - the fateful trinity.

Seton-Watson, Hugh. From Lenin to Malenkov: The History of World Communism. New York: Praeger 1953.

This is a curious and rather "fun" book to read. Written by a well-known British Historian, it is somewhat typical of the sort of scholarship 1950 liberal, anti-communist historians were into.

Schapiro, Leonard. The Communist Party of the Soviet Union. New York: Random House, 1960.

Schapiro, a British Professor of Soviet Government and Politics and author of The Origins of the Communist Autocracy (1956) is perhaps the leading non and/or anti-communist authority on the organizational history of the Russian Communist Party in the English-speaking world. This account of the some sixty years, 1900-1960, of the origins and development of Bolshevism is, to my knowledge, unrivaled in the amount of information brought together in a single volume.

Schwarz, Solomon M. The Russian Revolution of 1905: The Worker’s Movement and the Formation of Bolshevism and Menshevism. Translated from the Russian by Gertrude Vakar. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1967.

Schwarz had been a Bolshevik agitator in the Revolution of 1905, switching his allegiance to the Mensheviks by 1917. This is a superb and detailed account of the origins and the development of the split into the two camps of Russian Social Democracy.

C. Origins of the Cold War: A Selected Bibliography

The following titles and notes attempt to introduce the beginning and interested reader to some of the literature dealing with the origin, the nature, and the course of the "cold war." While different points of view are contained within this list, no attempt has been made at "bi-partisanship," a task best left —no doubt— to politicians.

Rather, this is a brief introduction to revisionism, a term which means many things to many men—depending upon the time, the place, and/or the color of one’s flag. For the purposes of this bibliographic introduction to the "cold war" however, revisionism will be taken to mean that body of research and writing which is endeavoring to revise the standard, the traditional, the orthodox interpretation of the origin, the nature and the course of the "cold war."

Professors Schlesinger, Feis, and Kennan are three of the more prestigious "cold war warriors" of the traditional and orthodox school; for that reason, works by each have been included in the following list. The rest, however, are either entirely or in part in opposition to the standard interpretation. This selected bibliography, then, is an introduction to other sides of the story.

Welcome, to another great debate. L. C. Jorgensen. 1971.

Academy of Sciences of the U.S.S.R. Institute of History. A SHORT HISTORY OF THE USSR Volume II, Moscow: Progress Publishers, 1965 (in English).

Realizing the absurdity of the suggestion that one ought to read what the Soviet historians have to say concerning the origin, nature, and course of the cold war," and what the people of the Soviet Union are being taught about that "war," this book is included in this list as a sort of "existential tokenism," Intervention and Civil War, the events leading to World War II, the War itself, and the diplomacy of the post war years all are discussed from the "official" Soviet position.

Alperovitz, Gar. ATOMIC DIPLOMACY. Simon and Schuster. 1965.

Concentrates on the four month period from the death of F.D.R. to the dropping of the atom bomb on Hiroshima. Alperovitz concludes that the atom bombs were used against the Japanese not to effect their surrender but to intimidate the Soviet Union.

American Academy of Political and Social Science. THE ANNUALS. Vol. 351, January 1964, "The Changing Cold War." Philadelphia, 1964.

This special Issue of the Annuals, edited by D. F. Fleming, contains several Important and relevant articles on the general topic of the "cold war." Southeast Asia, Cuba, China, NATO, etc. are all discussed relative to their role in the formation of U.S. foreign policy—past, present, future.

Chernievsky, Michael. ‘’Corporal Hitler, General Winter, and the Russian Peasant, YALE REVIEW Summer 1962.

This is a particularly good (and brief) exposition and critique of the too generally accepted myth that Germany’s defeat in Russia was through some combination of Hitler’s blunders, the extreme Russian cold, and Russian numerical superiority—by a very eminent American Russian historian.

Feis, Herbert. THE DIPLOMACY OF THE DOLLAR, FlRST ERA, 1919—1932. Baltimore. John. Hopkins Press, 1950.

Fels is perhaps the most professional of the orthodox historians continually and continuing to defend American foreign policy. This work illustrates the ever-present fundamental contradiction of that approach: a well documented study of the forcefulness of America’s economic foreign policy, without the rather obvious conclusion drawn. Other books by Fels include:


Princeton: Princeton U. Press, 1957.


Princeton: Princeton U. Press, 1966.


Princeton: Princeton U. Press, 1966.

Filene, Peter. AMERICANS AND THE SOVIET EXPERIMENT, 1917—1933. Boston: Harvard U.

Stresses the intense interest that Americans in positions of power and influence exhibited both publicly and privately for the developments in the Soviet Union—and their equally intense fear of those developments, their fear of bolshevism.

Fleming, D.F. THE COLD WAR AND ITS ORIGINS, 1917—1960 (in two volumes.) New York Doubleday, 1961.

Considered to be the standard "revisionist" study of the Cold War, written by one who has spent his entire academic life studying, evaluating, and teaching American diplomatic history. Volume I covers the "cold war" from 1917 to 1945; Volume II, 1945 to 1960.

Fontaine, Andre. HISTORY OF THE COLD WAR FROM THE OCTOBER REVOLUTION TO THE KOREAN WAR, 1917-1950. Translated from the French by D.D. Paige. New York Random House, 1968.

This work also dates the origin of the "cold war" with the Bolshevik Revolution, and takes the account, from a French viewpoint, to the Korean War.

Gardner, Lloyd. ECONOMIC ASPECTS OF NEW DEAL DIPLOMACY. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1964.

Instructive reading for even the most dedicated worshipers of Franklin D. Roosevelt’s administration.

Gitlin, Todd. "Counter Insurgency: Myth and Reality in Greece," CONTAINMENT AND REVOLUTION, Horowitz (ad.), Boston: Beacon Press, 1967, pp. 140—181.

Excellent account of the Vietnam of the 1940’s—Greece, and the political, economic, and military role played by the United States by that rather dismal episode.

Herring, George Jr. "Lend Lease to Russia and the Origins of the Cold War, 1944-45." THE JOURNAL OF AMERICAN HISTORY, June, 1969, pp. 93—114.

Written by a traditionalist, attempting to apologize for the sudden cancellation of the Land-Lease program by President Truman In May, 1945, Professor Herring ably demonstrates and documents that the exclusive purpose of the lend-lease assistance to the Soviet Union was to assist in the military defeat of Germany—and that it was consciously devoid of any notion or sense of "generosity." Professor Herring also addresses himself to the Truman ’error," found in the President’s explanation of the sudden cancellation, demonstrating that Truman’s explanation is "misleading at best."


Horowitz is a forceful and powerful writer. This work, originally published in 1965, was one of the first of the "radical" histories of the cold war; it is also the most popular and widely read of the revisionist works.

Horowitz, David (editor), CONTAINMENT AND REVOLUTION. Boston: Beacon Press, 1967.

This slim volume contains several specialized studies by various American and British scholars (Including William A. Williams, Isaac Deutscher, et. al.) which document the ever increasing imperialist role played by the United States in Europe and in Asia since 1917.

Kennan, George, "The Sources of Soviet Conduct," FOREIGN AFFAIRS, XXXV (July, 1947), pp. 556-82

When it was written, this article by the famous Mr. "X" first publicized the policy, which became known as "containment." Mr. Kennan has had a long and distinguished career as a diplomat, state department policy maker, and historian. A solidly liberal anticommunist, his diplomacy, policy, and writings place him at the head of the traditional and orthodox school. In addition to this article, his books must be read by anyone desiring to understand how American intellectuals in general and most historians in particular manage to hold onto their misinformed and dangerous notions concerning the origin, the nature, and the copse of Soviet-American relations since 1917. Some of his other works include:


Princeton: Princeton U. Press, 1958.


Boston: Little, Brown & Co., 1967.

MEMOIRS, 1925. 1950. Boston: Little Brown & Co. 1967.

Kolko, Gabriel. THE POLITICS OF WAR: THE WORLD AND UNITED STATES FOREIGN POLICY, 1943-1945. New York: Random House, 1969.

A monumental work of scholarship, massively documented, which argues that American policy during the Second World War was consciously directed toward opening both the British and the Soviet empires to American economic penetration. To do this, Kolko demonstrates, the United States had to deliberately and forcefully oppose any and all movements which might have led to leftist or pro-leftist governments in the areas of Europe, and elsewhere, that the United States hoped to penetrate.

LaFeber, Walter. AMERICA, RUSSIA, AND THE COLD WAR, 1945—1966. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1968.

LaFeber, another of the "new" historians, argues that American foreign policy is significantly influenced by the nature of American society itself; consequently, this work is a study both of the diplomatic events of the period, 1945-1966, and of the political machinations within the United States that produced them. Much good information is included on American policy in Latin America, Korea.

Lasch, Christopher. THE AMERICAN LIBERALS AND THE RUSSIAN REVOLUTION. New York: Columbia U. Press, 1962

Admitting that the term "liberal" is a difficult one at best, Professor Lasch attempts to chronicle the attitudes and policies of individuals who considered themselves "liberal" (and who were generally considered "liberal" by subsequent generations of historians) as they witness and react to the Bolshevik Revolution. This work is especially Important in treating those "liberals" who were able to translate their attitudes into policies because of their position in the American power structure.

"The Cold War, Revisited and Re-visioned." NEW YORK TIMES MAGAZINE, (January 14, 1968).

This is an excellent summary of the "cold war" historiography commonly called "revisionism."

Lynd, Staughton. "How the Cold War Began." COMMENTARY, XXX (November, 1960), pp. 379-389.

Neal, Fred Warner. U.S. FOREIGN POLICY AND THE SOVIET UNION. Santa Barbara: Center for the Study of Democratic Institutions, 1961.

A brief (fifty-nine pages) record and critique of U.S. policy toward the Soviet Union by a former foreign correspondent for the WALL STREET JOURNAL.

Paterson, Thomas G. "The Abortive Loan to Russia and the Origins of the Cold War, 1943-1946." THE JOURNAL OF AMERICAN HISTORY, June, 1969, pp. 70-92.

Highly convincing article that the Truman Administration consciously refused to bargain with the Soviet Union concerning that country’s reconstruction needs and that it chose to attempt to Intimidate Moscow using American wealth and the "loan" to gain important economic and political concessions in Eastern Europe.

Pickett, Ralph H. "Germany and the Oder-Nelsse Line." PEACE RESEARCH REVIEWS, I1, (February, 1968). Ontario: Canadian Peace Research Institute.

Prof. Pickett’s detailed monograph on the creation of the post World War II Polish-German border draws heavily on German and Polish sources, including German organizations representing those expelled from the disputed areas.

Schlesinger, Arther, Jr. "Origins of the Cold War." FOREIGN AFFAIRS, XLVI (October, 1967), pp. 22-52

Prof. Schlesinger, friend and confident to numerous highly placed and powerful liberals, has perhaps both a personal and vested interest in preserving the orthodox interpretation of the cold war nonetheless, he is the liberal establishment’s most articulate and politically influential spokesman this article, then, is most instructive and informative relative to the attempt to understand the ideological and psychological factors which underlie orthodoxy. (eg. "the Cold War was the brave and essential response of free men to communist aggression." . . . )

Sokolovskli, VV. D. (ad.). Marshal of the Soviet Union. SOVIET MILITARY STRATEGY Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall, 1963.

This is a Rand Corporation Research Study and translation of a work originally published by the Military Publishing House of the Ministry of Defense of the USSR. Chapters two and three are of especial significance because they deal with the Soviet military’s interpretation of the two World Wars and of the division between "East" and "West", between Communist and anti-Communist blocs.

Stillman, Edmund and Pfaff, William. POWER AND IMPOTENCE! THE FAILURE OF AMERICA’S OREIGN POLICY. New York: Random House, 1966.

This work insists that post World War II policy (of the United States) has been dominated by a sense of "messianisnm" and that a policy so dictated is irrelevant to the contemporary world, and extremely dangerous to both that world and the United State itself.

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