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·        In a report to President Carter, 13 U.S. government agencies stated that by the year 2000, the earth would be more polluted, crowded, less stable ecologically, and more vulnerable to disruption. Serious stresses involving population, resources and environment are clearly visible. Christian Science Monitor, 7/25/80


 ·        Scientists Say Earth’s Warming Could Set Off Wide Disruptions

“Inter-governmental panel on Climate Change . . . a United Nations group of 2,500 scientists from around the world. . . global climate change is indeed in progress . . .  An increase in extremes of temperatures, dryness and precipitation in some regions . . . .A striking retreat of mountain glacier around the world. . . . wide agreement among scientists that the average surface temperature of the globe has already risen by 1 degree Fahrenheit during the last century, with the steepest rise taking place in the last forty years.” NY Times. William K. Stevens. 1/18/95, Pg. 1.

 ·        Satellite data: El Nino Twice as Strong as in 1992-93

An El Nino warming trend has been located in the Pacific Ocean. It is estimated to be twice as strong as the one in 1992. The tropical Pacific is currently 4 to 8 inches higher than normal. The extra height reflects an excessive amount of unusually warm water in the upper ocean. The Chinook Observer, 1/31/95

 ·        Heat Death Toll Rises to 436 in Chicago

“Never in its recorded history has Chicago suffered through three straight days of such high temperatures and humidity. . . . life-taking 106 degrees. . . . 700 heat-related deaths nation-wide.” Don Terry. NY Times. 7/20/95. A8. 

·        Nearly 50,000 cases if Dengue fever have been reported in Central America over the summer. Mosquitoes that carry the disease have expanded their boundaries due to the unusually warm weather. AP, 9/2/95 

·        Experts predict economic, social and environmental problems in the next century if emissions of heat trapping gases are not reduced. Possible early effects include the sea level rising more than a foot and a half, an increase in extreme temperatures, dryness and precipitation, and a retreat of mountain glaciers. NY Times, 9/18/95


·        The rainfall record for 1995 reached 29.35 inches, exceeding 1994’s record.  Chinook Observer, 1/9/96 

·        Bad Weather? Just Wait.

“A United Nations scientific panel recently concluded for the first time that global warming had begun and would intensify because of rising levels of heat trapping gases emitted by burning coal, oil and natural gas. . . . Sea levels will also rise, slowly inundating Asian farmlands . . . cities and harbors throughout the world.” John Harte and Daniel Lashof. NY Times, 1/10/96, pg. A15. 

·        While California endured record breaking heat, the Northeast endured an extraordinary blizzard. Some believe this freak weather is another example of global warming. NY Times, 1/10/96. 

·        Insurance Industry Leading Fight Against Global Warming.

A growing number of “the largest European insurers believe their very survival may depend” on action on global warming. “The number of storms around the world has increased quite dramatically over the last ten years. We have come to the conclusion that it’s not just a coincidence that this is happening at the same time as temperatures are rising.” General Accident, major European firm that insures property worldwide against damage from storms. Another insurance company executive: “When you’ve got weather shifts of unpredictable dimensions, in a real sense global climate change is uninsurable, and that indicates the enormity of the problem . . .  Just a few huge weather related disasters, say a category five hurricane striking Miami or a drought-related wildfire moving into Los Angeles, could wipe out the industry’s entire worldwide reserves.” David Baron. NPR, 1/19/96. 

·        Cold Wave Washes Over Midwest: 23 die in Chicago.Record lows for the date were tied or broken in Wyoming, Montana, South Dakota, Nebraska, Iowa, Minnesota, Wisconsin, Michigan and Illinois. . . .  55 below, with a wind chill reading of 74 below . . . at Hallock, Minn.”

LA Times, 2/1/96, pg. A13. 

·        Florida Facing Crisis in Insurance: Hurricanes Batter Both Companies and Homeowners Coverage. Florida’s Insurance Commissioner, Bill Nelson: “There are limits to what the state can cover, and they warn of difficulties if a hurricane hits a large metropolitan are and causes residential losses of $25 billion to $50 billion. . . . If we have another big hurricane, all bets are off.” Mireya Navarro. NY Times. April 25, 1996. 

·        Florida faces insurance crisis due to Hurricane Andrew. Since Andrews’ devastation in 1992, homeowners insurance has gone up 72%. Hurricane Andrew caused $10 billion in damage, forcing nine small insurance companies to declare bankruptcy. NY Times, 4/25/96. 

·        Grain Prices Soar On Poor Weather and Low Supplies

Last year ”planting was delayed, summer heat disrupted corn pollination and  early frost crimped yields. . . There is no room for another bad grain crop.”

Barnaby J. Feder. NY Times, 4/26/96. Pg. A1. 

·        Worst Drought Since 1930s Grips Plains: Wheat Farmers and Ranchers Are Ruined: “the second driest such period since Oklahoma Climatological Survey started keeping records 101 years ago.” NY Times 5/20/96. 

·        According to researchers, the quantity of ozone destroying chemicals in the atmosphere is declining. This means that ozone destruction should reach its peak by the end of the decade. NY Times, 5/31/96. 

·        Flooding threatens the capital of Bangladesh as 29 rivers continue to swell from heavy rains. At least 2,000 people have already died between 1987-1988 from flooding. NY Times, 7/6/96. 

·         “Insurance Companies warned here on Tuesday of enormous economic costs if global actions to reduce greenhouse gas emissions come too slowly.” Geneva, July 9, 1996, Xinhua News Agency. 

·        Since the 1960’s, the difference between the atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide in summer and winter has risen by 20% in Hawaii and 40% in the Arctic. Around 1975, the spring started coming earlier each year. Surface temperatures have been getting warmer since the late 1950’s. NY Times, 7/16/96. 

·        Key world powers, led by the United States and the European Union pledged Thursday to fight global warming by working for an early accord reducing gas emissions produced by oil and coal use, which are said to affect weather. . . . infuriated a U.S. heavy industry lobby, the Global Climate Coalition (GCC). . .  OPEC bitter.” Geneva. Reuters. 7/18/96. 

·        Nations are urged to pass laws on emissions. Since the 1992 Earth Summit, governments have agreed to cut emissions to 1990 levels by the year 2000. Experts believe there will be an increasing concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere which will lead to dangerous interference with the climate system. NY Times, 7/19/96. 

·        “Between 1989 and 1994, private and government insurers paid more than $67 billion in storm damage claims -- $20 billion more than was paid out during the previous five years. The 1992s Hurricane Andrew . . . caused $ 25 billion in property damages. More storms will mean higher insurance rates. . . . the biggest fear is that some areas could not get insurance at all. The insurance industry took center stage at a UN conference on climate change in Geneva last July, where several industry giants called for reductions in greenhouse gas emissions. Hurricanes will become more common. Sharon Collins. CNN. 9/2/96. 

·        The insurance industry took center stage as a UN conference on climate change in Geneva last July, where several industry giants called for reductions in greenhouse gas emissions.” CNN. Sharon Collins. 9/2/96. 

·        Snow Sweeps South, Icebox Chills Plains: Baby, It’s Cold Out There! CNN. 12/18/96. 

·        Sub zero temperatures gripped the northern Plains, where snowdrifts continued to make driving difficult for motorists. In southwest Minnesota, police set up roadblocks for wayward motorists who ignored warnings to stay home. CNN, 12/19/96. 

·        Gunnison, Colorado recorded a low of 34 degrees below zero. At Devils Lake, North Dakota, the wind chill reading was minus 62. AP, 12/19/96